Linux Commands

Introduction

This is the most complete guide on Linux Command Line.

Bash Builtins

GNU Coreutils

[

[ command

Syntax:

Example:

$ [

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arch

arch command print machine hardware name (same as uname

Syntax:

       arch [OPTION]...

Example:

$ arch

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b2sum

b2sum command compute and check BLAKE2 message digest

Syntax:

       b2sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ b2sum

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base32

base32 command base32 encode/decode data and print to standard output

Syntax:

       base32 [OPTION]... [FILE]

Example:

$ base32

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base64

base64 command base64 encode/decode data and print to standard output

Syntax:

       base64 [OPTION]... [FILE]

Example:

$ base64

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basename

basename command strip directory and suffix from filenamess .h include/stdio.h a any/str1 any/str2

Syntax:

       basename NAME [SUFFIX]
       basename OPTION... NAME...

Example:

$ basename

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cat

cat command concatenate files and print on the standard output

Syntax:

       cat [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ cat

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chcon

chcon command change file security context

Syntax:

       chcon [OPTION]... CONTEXT FILE...
       chcon [OPTION]... [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...
       chcon [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Example:

$ chcon

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chgrp

chgrp command change group ownership

Syntax:

       chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...
       chgrp [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Example:

$ chgrp

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chmod

chmod command change file mode bits

Syntax:

       chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Example:

$ chmod

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chown

chown command change file owner and group

Syntax:

       chown [OPTION]... [OWNER][:[GROUP]] FILE...
       chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Example:

$ chown

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chroot

chroot command run command or interactive shell with special root directory

Syntax:

       chroot [OPTION] NEWROOT [COMMAND [ARG]...]
       chroot OPTION

Example:

$ chroot

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cksum

cksum command checksum and count the bytes in a file

Syntax:

       cksum [FILE]...
       cksum [OPTION]

Example:

$ cksum

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comm

comm command compare two sorted files line by line

Syntax:

       comm [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2

Example:

$ comm

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cp

cp command copy files and directories

Syntax:

       cp [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
       cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
       cp [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...

Example:

$ cp

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csplit

csplit command split a file into sections determined by context lines

Syntax:

       csplit [OPTION]... FILE PATTERN...

Example:

$ csplit

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cut

cut command remove sections from each line of files

Syntax:

       cut OPTION... [FILE]...

Example:

$ cut

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date

date command print or set the system date and time

Syntax:

       date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
       date [-u|--utc|--universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]

Example:

$ date

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dd

dd command convert and copy a file

Syntax:

       dd [OPERAND]...
       dd OPTION

Example:

$ dd

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df

df command report file system disk space usage

Syntax:

       df [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ df

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dir

dir command list directory contents

Syntax:

       dir [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ dir

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dircolors

dircolors command color setup for ls

Syntax:

       dircolors [OPTION]... [FILE]

Example:

$ dircolors

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dirname

dirname command strip last component from file name

Syntax:

       dirname [OPTION] NAME...

Example:

$ dirname

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du

du command estimate file space usage

Syntax:

       du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
       du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F

Example:

$ du

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echo

echo command display a line of text

Syntax:

       echo [SHORT-OPTION]... [STRING]...
       echo LONG-OPTION

Example:

$ echo

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env

env command run a program in a modified environment ] [NAME=VALUE]… [COMMAND [ARG]…]i,implies S perl w

Syntax:

       env [OPTION]... [-] [NAME=VALUE]... [COMMAND [ARG]...]

Example:

$ env

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expand

expand command convert tabs to spaces

Syntax:

       expand [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ expand

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expr

expr command evaluate expressions

Syntax:

       expr EXPRESSION
       expr OPTION

Example:

$ expr

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factor

factor command factor numbers

Syntax:

       factor [NUMBER]...
       factor OPTION

Example:

$ factor

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false

false command do nothing, unsuccessfully

Syntax:

       false [ignored command line arguments]
       false OPTION

Example:

$ false

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fmt

fmt command simple optimal text formatter

Syntax:

       fmt [-WIDTH] [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ fmt

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fold

fold command wrap each input line to fit in specified width

Syntax:

       fold [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ fold

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groups

groups command print the groups a user is in

Syntax:

       groups [OPTION]... [USERNAME]...

Example:

$ groups

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head

head command output the first part of files

Syntax:

       head [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ head

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hostid

hostid command print the numeric identifier for the current host

Syntax:

       hostid [OPTION]

Example:

$ hostid

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id

id command print real and effective user and group IDs

Syntax:

       id [OPTION]... [USER]

Example:

$ id

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install

install command copy files and set attributes

Syntax:

       install [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
       install [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
       install [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...
       install [OPTION]... -d DIRECTORY...

Example:

$ install

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join

join command join lines of two files on a common field

Syntax:

       join [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2

Example:

$ join

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link

link command call the link function to create a link to a file

Syntax:

       link FILE1 FILE2
       link OPTION

Example:

$ link

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ln

ln command make links between files T] TARGET LINK_NAMEt DIRECTORY TARGET…

Syntax:

       ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME
       ln [OPTION]... TARGET
       ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY
       ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET...

Example:

$ ln

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logname

logname command print user´s login name

Syntax:

       logname [OPTION]

Example:

$ logname

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ls

ls command list directory contents

Syntax:

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ ls

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md5sum

md5sum command compute and check MD5 message digest

Syntax:

       md5sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ md5sum

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md5sum.textutils

md5sum.textutils command

Syntax:

Example:

$ md5sum.textutils

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mkdir

mkdir command make directories

Syntax:

       mkdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Example:

$ mkdir

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mkfifo

mkfifo command make FIFOs (named pipes)

Syntax:

       mkfifo [OPTION]... NAME...

Example:

$ mkfifo

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mknod

mknod command make block or character special files

Syntax:

       mknod [OPTION]... NAME TYPE [MAJOR MINOR]

Example:

$ mknod

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mktemp

mktemp command create a temporary file or directory

Syntax:

       mktemp [OPTION]... [TEMPLATE]

Example:

$ mktemp

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mv

mv command move (rename) files

Syntax:

       mv [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
       mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
       mv [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...

Example:

$ mv

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nice

nice command run a program with modified scheduling priority

Syntax:

       nice [OPTION] [COMMAND [ARG]...]

Example:

$ nice

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nl

nl command number lines of files

Syntax:

       nl [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ nl

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nohup

nohup command run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non

Syntax:

       nohup COMMAND [ARG]...
       nohup OPTION

Example:

$ nohup

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nproc

nproc command print the number of processing units available

Syntax:

       nproc [OPTION]...

Example:

$ nproc

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numfmt

numfmt command Convert numbers from/to human

Syntax:

       numfmt [OPTION]... [NUMBER]...

Example:

$ numfmt

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od

od command dump files in octal and other formats

Syntax:

       od [OPTION]... [FILE]...
       od [-abcdfilosx]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b]]
       od --traditional [OPTION]... [FILE] [[+]OFFSET[.][b] [+][LABEL][.][b]]

Example:

$ od

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paste

paste command merge lines of files

Syntax:

       paste [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ paste

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pathchk

pathchk command check whether file names are valid or portable

Syntax:

       pathchk [OPTION]... NAME...

Example:

$ pathchk

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pinky

pinky command lightweight finger

Syntax:

       pinky [OPTION]... [USER]...

Example:

$ pinky

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pr

pr command convert text files for printing

Syntax:

       pr [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ pr

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printenv

printenv command print all or part of environment

Syntax:

       printenv [OPTION]... [VARIABLE]...

Example:

$ printenv

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printf

printf command format and print data

Syntax:

       printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT]...
       printf OPTION

Example:

$ printf

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ptx

ptx command produce a permuted index of file contents

Syntax:

       ptx [OPTION]... [INPUT]...   (without -G)
       ptx -G [OPTION]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

Example:

$ ptx

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pwd

pwd command print name of current/working directory

Syntax:

       pwd [OPTION]...

Example:

$ pwd

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readlink

readlink command print resolved symbolic links or canonical file names

Syntax:

       readlink [OPTION]... FILE...

Example:

$ readlink

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realpath

realpath command print the resolved path

Syntax:

       realpath [OPTION]... FILE...

Example:

$ realpath

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rm

rm command remove files or directories

Syntax:

       rm [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ rm

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rmdir

rmdir command remove empty directories

Syntax:

       rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

Example:

$ rmdir

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runcon

runcon command run command with specified security context

Syntax:

       runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [args]
       runcon [ -c ] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND [args]

Example:

$ runcon

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seq

seq command print a sequence of numbers

Syntax:

       seq [OPTION]... LAST
       seq [OPTION]... FIRST LAST
       seq [OPTION]... FIRST INCREMENT LAST

Example:

$ seq

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sha1sum

sha1sum command compute and check SHA1 message digest

Syntax:

       sha1sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sha1sum

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sha224sum

sha224sum command compute and check SHA224 message digest

Syntax:

       sha224sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sha224sum

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sha256sum

sha256sum command compute and check SHA256 message digest

Syntax:

       sha256sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sha256sum

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sha384sum

sha384sum command compute and check SHA384 message digest

Syntax:

       sha384sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sha384sum

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sha512sum

sha512sum command compute and check SHA512 message digest

Syntax:

       sha512sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sha512sum

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shred

shred command overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it

Syntax:

       shred [OPTION]... FILE...

Example:

$ shred

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shuf

shuf command generate random permutations

Syntax:

       shuf [OPTION]... [FILE]
       shuf -e [OPTION]... [ARG]...
       shuf -i LO-HI [OPTION]...

Example:

$ shuf

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sleep

sleep command delay for a specified amount of time

Syntax:

       sleep NUMBER[SUFFIX]...
       sleep OPTION

Example:

$ sleep

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sort

sort command sort lines of text files

Syntax:

       sort [OPTION]... [FILE]...
       sort [OPTION]... --files0-from=F

Example:

$ sort

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split

split command split a file into pieces

Syntax:

       split [OPTION]... [FILE [PREFIX]]

Example:

$ split

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stat

stat command display file or file system status

Syntax:

       stat [OPTION]... FILE...

Example:

$ stat

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stdbuf

stdbuf command Run COMMAND, with modified buffering operations for its standard streams.

Syntax:

       stdbuf OPTION... COMMAND

Example:

$ stdbuf

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stty

stty command change and print terminal line settings

Syntax:

       stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [SETTING]...
       stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [-a|--all]
       stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [-g|--save]

Example:

$ stty

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sum

sum command checksum and count the blocks in a file

Syntax:

       sum [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ sum

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sync

sync command Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage

Syntax:

       sync [OPTION] [FILE]...

Example:

$ sync

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tac

tac command concatenate and print files in reverse

Syntax:

       tac [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ tac

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tail

tail command output the last part of files

Syntax:

       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ tail

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tee

tee command read from standard input and write to standard output and files

Syntax:

       tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ tee

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test

test command check file types and compare values

Syntax:

       test EXPRESSION
       test

Example:

$ test

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timeout

timeout command run a command with a time limit

Syntax:

       timeout [OPTION] DURATION COMMAND [ARG]...
       timeout [OPTION]

Example:

$ timeout

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touch

touch command change file timestamps

Syntax:

       touch [OPTION]... FILE...

Example:

$ touch

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tr

tr command translate or delete characters

Syntax:

       tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]

Example:

$ tr

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true

true command do nothing, successfully

Syntax:

       true [ignored command line arguments]
       true OPTION

Example:

$ true

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truncate

truncate command shrink or extend the size of a file to the specified size

Syntax:

       truncate OPTION... FILE...

Example:

$ truncate

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tsort

tsort command perform topological sort

Syntax:

       tsort [OPTION] [FILE]

Example:

$ tsort

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tty

tty command print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

Syntax:

       tty [OPTION]...

Example:

$ tty

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uname

uname command print system information

Syntax:

       uname [OPTION]...

Example:

$ uname

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unexpand

unexpand command convert spaces to tabs

Syntax:

       unexpand [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ unexpand

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uniq

uniq command report or omit repeated lines

Syntax:

       uniq [OPTION]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

Example:

$ uniq

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unlink

unlink command call the unlink function to remove the specified file

Syntax:

       unlink FILE
       unlink OPTION

Example:

$ unlink

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users

users command print the user names of users currently logged in to the current host

Syntax:

       users [OPTION]... [FILE]

Example:

$ users

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vdir

vdir command list directory contents

Syntax:

       vdir [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Example:

$ vdir

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wc

wc command print newline, word, and byte counts for each file

Syntax:

       wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...
       wc [OPTION]... --files0-from=F

Example:

$ wc

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who

who command show who is logged on

Syntax:

       who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ]

Example:

$ who

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whoami

whoami command print effective userid

Syntax:

       whoami [OPTION]...

Example:

$ whoami

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yes

yes command output a string repeatedly until killed

Syntax:

       yes [STRING]...
       yes OPTION

Example:

$ yes

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Util-linux

Util-linux is a diverse collection of Linux kernel utilities. It provides dmesg and includes tools for working with file systems, block devices, UUIDs, TTYs, and many other tools.

addpart

addpart command tell the kernel about the existence of a partition

Syntax:

addpart device partition start length

Example:

$ addpart

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agetty

agetty command is alternative Linux getty.

Syntax:

agetty [options] port [baud_rate...] [term]

Example:

$ agetty

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blkdiscard

blkdiscard command discard sectors on a device

Syntax:

blkdiscard [options] [-o offset] [-l length] device

Example:

$ blkdiscard

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blkid

blkid command locate/print block device attributes.

Syntax:

blkid  --label label | --uuid uuid
blkid  [--no-encoding --garbage-collect --list-one --cache-file file] [--output format] [--match-tag tag] [--match-token NAME=value] [device ...]
blkid  --probe  [--offset offset] [--output format] [--size size] [--match-tag tag] [--match-types list] [--usages list] [--no-part-details] device
blkid  --info [--output format] [--match-tag tag] device ...

Example:

$ blkid

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blkzone

blkzone command run zone command on a device

Syntax:

blkzone command [options] device

Example:

$ blkzone

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blockdev

blockdev command call block device ioctls from the command line

Syntax:

blockdev [-q] [-v] command [command...] device [device...]
blockdev --report [device...]
blockdev -h|-V

Example:

$ blockdev

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chcpu

chcpu command configure CPUs

Syntax:

chcpu -c|-d|-e|-g cpu-list
chcpu -p mode
chcpu -r|-h|-V

Example:

$ chcpu

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chmem

chmem command configure memory

Syntax:

chmem [-h] [-V] [-v] [-e|-d] [SIZE|RANGE|-b BLOCKRANGE] [-z ZONE]

Example:

$ chmem

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choom

choom command display and adjust OOM

Syntax:

choom -p pid
choom -p pid -n number
choom -n number command [argument...]

Example:

$ choom

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chrt

chrt command manipulate the real

Syntax:

chrt [options] priority command [argument...]
chrt [options] -p [priority] pid

Example:

$ chrt

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ctrlaltdel

ctrlaltdel command set the function of the Ctrl

Syntax:

ctrlaltdel hard|soft

Example:

$ ctrlaltdel

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delpart

delpart command tell the kernel to forget about a partition

Syntax:

delpart device partition

Example:

$ delpart

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dmesg

dmesg command print or control the kernel ring buffer

Syntax:

dmesg [options]
dmesg --clear
dmesg --read-clear [options]
dmesg --console-level level
dmesg --console-on
dmesg --console-off

Example:

$ dmesg

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fallocate

fallocate command preallocate or deallocate space to a file

Syntax:

fallocate [-c|-p|-z] [-o offset] -l length [-n] filename
fallocate -d [-o offset] [-l length] filename
fallocate -x [-o offset] -l length filename

Example:

$ fallocate

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fdformat

fdformat command low

Syntax:

fdformat [options] device

Example:

$ fdformat

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fincore

fincore command count pages of file contents in core

Syntax:

fincore [options] file ...

Example:

$ fincore

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findfs

findfs command find a filesystem by label or UUID.

Syntax:

findfs NAME=value

Example:

$ findfs

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findmnt

findmnt command find a filesystem

Syntax:

findmnt [options]
findmnt [options] device|mountpoint
findmnt [options] [--source] device [--target|--mountpoint] mountpoint

Example:

$ findmnt

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flock

flock command manage locks from shell scripts

Syntax:

flock [options] file|directory command [arguments]
flock [options] file|directory -c command
flock [options] number

Example:

$ flock

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fsck

fsck command check and repair a Linux filesystem

Syntax:

fsck [-lsAVRTMNP] [-r [fd]] [-C [fd]] [-t fstype] [filesystem...] [--] [fs-specific-options]

Example:

$ fsck

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fsck.cramfs

fsck.cramfs command fsck compressed ROM file system

Syntax:

fsck.cramfs [options] file

Example:

$ fsck.cramfs

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fsck.minix

fsck.minix command check consistency of Minix filesystem

Syntax:

fsck.minix [options] device

Example:

$ fsck.minix

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fsfreeze

fsfreeze command suspend access to a filesystem (Ext3/4, ReiserFS, JFS, XFS)

Syntax:

fsfreeze --freeze|--unfreeze mountpoint

Example:

$ fsfreeze

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fstrim

fstrim command discard unused blocks on a mounted filesystem

Syntax:

fstrim [-Aa] [-o offset] [-l length] [-m minimum-size] [-v] mountpoint

Example:

$ fstrim

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getopt

getopt command parse command options (enhanced)

Syntax:

getopt optstring parameters
getopt [options] [--] optstring parameters
getopt [options] -o|--options optstring [options] [--] parameters

Example:

$ getopt

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getty

getty command alias of agetty command.

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hwclock

hwclock command time clocks utility

Syntax:

hwclock [function] [option...]

Example:

$ hwclock

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i386

i386 command is and alias of setarch command

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ionice

ionice command set or get process I/O scheduling class and priority

Syntax:

ionice [-c class] [-n level] [-t] -p PID...
ionice [-c class] [-n level] [-t] -P PGID...
ionice [-c class] [-n level] [-t] -u UID...
ionice [-c class] [-n level] [-t] command [argument...]

Example:

$ ionice

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ipcmk

ipcmk command make various IPC resources

Syntax:

ipcmk [options]

Example:

$ ipcmk

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ipcrm

ipcrm command remove certain IPC resources

Syntax:

ipcrm [options]
ipcrm {shm|msg|sem} id...

Example:

$ ipcrm

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ipcs

ipcs command show information on IPC facilities

Syntax:

ipcs [options]

Example:

$ ipcs

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isosize

isosize command output the length of an iso9660 filesystem

Syntax:

isosize [options] iso9660_image_file

Example:

$ isosize

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last

last command show a listing of last logged in users

Syntax:

last [options] [username...] [tty...]
lastb [options] [username...] [tty...]

Example:

$ last

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lastb

lastb command is an alias of last command.

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ldattach

ldattach command attach a line discipline to a serial line

Syntax:

ldattach [-1278denoVh] [-i iflag] [-s speed] ldisc device

Example:

$ ldattach

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linux32

linux32 command is an alias of setarch command

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linux64

linux64 command is an alias of setarch.

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lsblk

lsblk command list block devices.

Syntax:

lsblk [options] [device...]

Example:

$ lsblk

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lscpu

lscpu command display information about the CPU architecture.

Syntax:

lscpu [options]

Example:

$ lscpu

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lsipc

lsipc command show information on IPC facilities currently employed in the system.

Syntax:

lsipc [options]

Example:

$ lsipc

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lslocks

lslocks command list local system locks

Syntax:

lslocks [options]

Example:

$ lslocks

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lslogins

lslogins command display information about known users in the system.

Syntax:

lslogins [options] [-s|-u[=UID]] [-g groups] [-l logins] [username]

Example:

$ lslogins

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lsmem

lsmem command list the ranges of available memory with their online status

Syntax:

lsmem [options]

Example:

$ lsmem

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lsns

lsns command list namespaces

Syntax:

lsns [options] [namespace]

Example:

$ lsns

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mcookie

mcookie command generate magic cookies for xauth

Syntax:

mcookie [options]

Example:

$ mcookie

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mesg

mesg command display (or do not display) messages from other users

Syntax:

mesg [option] [n|y]

Example:

$ mesg

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mkfs

mkfs command build a Linux filesystem

Syntax:

mkfs [options] [-t type] [fs-options] device [size]

Example:

$ mkfs

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mkfs.bfs

mkfs.bfs command make an SCO bfs filesystem

Syntax:

mkfs.bfs [options] device [block-count]

Example:

$ mkfs.bfs

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mkfs.cramfs

mkfs.cramfs command make compressed ROM file system

Syntax:

mkfs.cramfs [options] directory file

Example:

$ mkfs.cramfs

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mkfs.minix

mkfs.minix command make a Minix filesystem

Syntax:

mkfs.minix [options] device [size-in-blocks]

Example:

$ mkfs.minix

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mkswap

mkswap command set up a Linux swap area

Syntax:

mkswap [options] device [size]

Example:

$ mkswap

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more

more command file perusal filter for crt viewing

Syntax:

more [options] file...

Example:

$ more

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mountpoint

mountpoint command see if a directory or file is a mountpoint

Syntax:

mountpoint [-d|-q] directory | file
mountpoint -x device

Example:

$ mountpoint

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namei

namei command follow a pathname until a terminal point is found

Syntax:

namei [options] pathname...

Example:

$ namei

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nsenter

nsenter command run program with namespaces of other processes

Syntax:

nsenter [options] [program [arguments]]

Example:

$ nsenter

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partx

partx command tell the kernel about the presence and numbering of on

Syntax:

partx [-a|-d|-P|-r|-s|-u] [-t type] [-n M:N] [-] disk
partx [-a|-d|-P|-r|-s|-u] [-t type] partition [disk]

Example:

$ partx

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pivot_root

pivot_root command change the root filesystem

Syntax:

pivot_root new_root put_old

Example:

$ pivot_root

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prlimit

prlimit command get and set process resource limits

Syntax:

prlimit [options] [--resource[=limits] [--pid PID]
prlimit [options] [--resource[=limits] command [argument...]

Example:

$ prlimit

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raw

raw command bind a Linux raw character device

Syntax:

raw /dev/raw/raw  
raw /dev/raw/raw /dev/
raw -q /dev/raw/raw
raw -qa

Example:

$ raw

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readprofile

readprofile command read kernel profiling information

Syntax:

readprofile [options]

Example:

$ readprofile

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rename.ul

rename.ul command

Syntax:

Example:

$ rename.ul

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resizepart

resizepart command tell the kernel about the new size of a partition

Syntax:

resizepart device partition length

Example:

$ resizepart

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rev

rev command reverse lines characterwise

Syntax:

rev [option] [file...]

Example:

$ rev

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rtcwake

rtcwake command enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time

Syntax:

rtcwake [options] [-d device] [-m standby_mode] {-s seconds|-t time_t}

Example:

$ rtcwake

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runuser

runuser command run a command with substitute user and group ID.

Syntax:

runuser [options] -u user [[--] command [argument...]]
runuser [options] [-] [user [argument...]]

Example:

$ runuser

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setarch

setarch command change reported architecture in new program environment and/or set personality flags.

Syntax:

setarch [arch] [options] [program [argument...]]
setarch --list|-h|-V

Example:

$ setarch

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setpriv

setpriv command run a program with different Linux privilege settings.

Syntax:

setpriv [options] program [arguments]

Example:

$ setpriv

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setsid

setsid command run a program in a new session

Syntax:

setsid [options] program [arguments]

Example:

$ setsid

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setterm

setterm command set terminal attributes

Syntax:

setterm [options]

Example:

$ setterm

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su

su command run a command with substitute user and group ID.

Syntax:

su [options] [-] [user [argument...]]

Example:

$ su

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sulogin

sulogin command single

Syntax:

sulogin [options] [tty]

Example:

$ sulogin

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swaplabel

swaplabel command print or change the label or UUID of a swap area

Syntax:

swaplabel [-L label] [-U UUID] device

Example:

$ swaplabel

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switch_root

switch_root command switch to another filesystem as the root of the mount tree

Syntax:

switch_root [-hV]
switch_root newroot init [arg...]

Example:

$ switch_root

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taskset

taskset command set or retrieve a process’s CPU affinity

Syntax:

taskset [options] mask command [argument...]
taskset [options] -p [mask] pid

Example:

$ taskset

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unshare

unshare command run program with some namespaces unshared from parent

Syntax:

unshare [options] [program [arguments]]

Example:

$ unshare

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utmpdump

utmpdump command dump UTMP and WTMP files in raw format

Syntax:

utmpdump [options] [filename]

Example:

$ utmpdump

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wdctl

wdctl command show hardware watchdog status

Syntax:

wdctl [options] [device...]

Example:

$ wdctl

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whereis

whereis command locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command

Syntax:

whereis [options] [-BMS directory... -f] name...

Example:

$ whereis

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wipefs

wipefs command wipe a signature from a device

Syntax:

wipefs [options] device...
wipefs [--backup] -o offset device...
wipefs [--backup] -a device...

Example:

$ wipefs

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x86_64

x86_64 command is an alias of setarch command.

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zramctl

zramctl command set up and control zram devices

Syntax:

zramctl [options]
zramctl -r zramdev...
zramctl -f
zramctl [-f | zramdev] [-s size] [-t number] [-a algorithm]

Example:

$ zramctl

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References